Some social issues – indeed, many social issues – are so complex
that no one person, organization, or system can solve them independently.
In a “collective impact” effort, a group of stakeholders work together to define an issue of central concern;
shape shared goals; undertake an integrated plan; and jointly measure their collective progress.

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Collective impact is both a philosophy and a structured method.

Stanford Social Innovation Review

In this article published Winter 2011, FSG’s Kania and Kramer introduced and defined their model of collective impact.

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Understanding the Value of the Backbone

Advancing the FSG model, this article identifies the backbone functions that help foster collective impact.

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Collective Impact Roles and Indicators

This 2-page reference guide outlines both the primary responsibilities and principle metrics to assess backbone entities.

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Guide to Evaluating Collective Impact

Published in 2013, this paper offers practitioners, funders, and evaluators a way to think about and implement performance metrics and evaluation activities.

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