Some social issues – indeed, many social issues – are so complex
that no one person, organization, or system can solve them independently.
In a “collective impact” effort, a group of stakeholders work together to define an issue of central concern;
shape shared goals; undertake an integrated plan; and jointly measure their collective progress.


Collective impact is both a philosophy and a structured method.

Stanford Social Innovation Review

In this article published Winter 2011, FSG’s Kania and Kramer introduced and defined their model of collective impact.


Understanding the Value of the Backbone

Advancing the FSG model, this article identifies the backbone functions that help foster collective impact.


Collective Impact Roles and Indicators

This 2-page reference guide outlines both the primary responsibilities and principle metrics to assess backbone entities.


Guide to Evaluating Collective Impact

Published in 2013, this paper offers practitioners, funders, and evaluators a way to think about and implement performance metrics and evaluation activities.